Arizona 2022 Senate Race

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The contentious senate race in Arizona is a worthwhile mid-term election focal point as the Grand Canyon State drifts towards becoming a purple state. Now the senate race is down to a two-party showdown since Libertarian candidate Marc Victor pulled out and bent the knee to Republican Blake Masters. While the individual impact of a single vote may be minuscule; voters should still attempt to educate themselves, as voting provides an expressive function. A vote is a confirmation of consent for a candidate or bundle of policies on their platform.

Here are the purported platforms of both candidates:

Republican: Blake Masters (per his campaign website, a three-plank platform)

Make America Safe Again

Democrats are the party of lawlessness and anarchy. We have lawlessness at the border. We have lawlessness in our cities. And with weak leadership in the White House, our foreign adversaries are becoming ever more emboldened and dangerous.

 As a father of three young children, I am so sick of this crime and chaos. It’s time to turn this ship around. We need to get control of our border. We need to punish criminals severely. And we need to project strength and competence abroad.

 Without baseline safety and security, society cannot survive, let alone thrive. In the U.S. Senate, I’ll fight every day to make life in Arizona safe again

  • Secure the border and end illegal immigration.
  • Stop the Biden crime wave.
  • America First: Strong and smart national defense.

Make America Prosperous Again

In Arizona, you should be able to raise a family on one single income.

You used to be able to do that. After decades of government intervention stifling our growth, outsourcing our jobs, and devaluing our money, you can’t do it anymore. The Left likes it this way it makes us more controllable and undermines the nuclear family.

In the U.S. Senate, I’ll fight every day to make life in Arizona affordable again. And I’ll bring innovative thinking to Washington that builds an environment for greater economic opportunity and bigger paychecks.

  • Empower parents and stop woke teachers.
  • Stop Bideninflation.
  • More jobs and bigger paychecks.
  • Immigration that works for America.
  • Energy independence, low gas prices.

Make America Free Again

The Far Left is hell-bent on destroying your rights. They want to suppress any dissent from their agenda. And they want to impose their radically liberal ideology to transform our culture into something unrecognizable.

 As your U.S. Senator, I will fight to my last breath for our constitutional rights and for our way of life.

  • Save free speech and fight big tech.
  • Expand gun rights.
  • Protect babies, don’t let them be killed.
  • Protect religious freedoms.
  • Pro-Bitcoin.
  • Secure our elections.
  • Put an end to wokeness.

Democrat: Mark Kelly (per his campaign website, a twelve-plank platform)

 LOWERING COSTS

  • Since last November, Mark has called on the Biden Administration to take action to lower costs. His plan to lower prescription drug costs was recently signed into law. He’s also introduced legislation to temporarily suspend the federal gas tax, supported increasing domestic oil production, and has pushed corporations to stop price gouging.

 GETTING ARIZONA’S ECONOMY BACK ON TRACK

  • Mark has helped cut taxes for families, all while making sure corporations pay their fair share. He delivered direct support to Arizona families and small businesses as well. Since taking office he’s also returned over $17 million in owed benefits back to constituents and has used his office to help support local small businesses like Tres Leches Cafe in Phoenix.

CREATING JOBS

  • Through the bipartisan infrastructure law and his microchip manufacturing law, Mark is bringing thousands of good-paying jobs to the state of Arizona, many of which don’t require a four-year degree. By supporting community colleges and technical schools around the state, he’s making sure Arizonans have the tools they need to fill these jobs.

INFRASTRUCTURE & MICROCHIPS

  • Mark played a key role in shaping the bipartisan infrastructure law that will fix our roads and bridges, increase access to high-speed internet, and modernize our ports of entry. He also negotiated the bipartisan CHIPS law which will invest in microchip manufacturing here in Arizona, easing supply chain demands, creating jobs, and supporting our national security.

HEALTH CARE

  • Mark passed a law to ban surprise medical billing. He also passed major prescription drug reform that will allow Medicare to negotiate lower drug prices with pharmaceutical companies and will cap out-of-pocket expenses for seniors. He will also always protect Social Security to make sure seniors have the benefits they’ve earned.

SECURITY

  • Mark has delivered increased technology and staffing to strengthen Arizona border security. Thanks to Mark, Customs and Border Protection will be closing border barrier gaps near the Morelos Dam outside Yuma. Mark will keep working to ensure that Arizona has the tools needed for a secure, orderly, and fair process at the border.

BAN CORPORATE PACS

  • Mark doesn’t take a dime of corporate PAC money and he has proposed legislation to ban corporate PACs entirely. Mark believes we need to reduce the corporate influence in Washington that so often stands in the way of getting results for Arizonans.

PUBLIC SENATE SCHEDULE

  • Mark publishes his official Senate schedule online so Arizonans can see whom he’s meeting with and how he’s working for our state — and he’s introduced legislation to require all senators to do the same.

END CONGRESSIONAL STOCK TRADING

  • Elected leaders have access to valuable information that impacts policy, the economy, and entire industries. Mark has introduced legislation to ban members of Congress from trading stocks, which would put an end to corrupt insider trading and ensure leaders in Congress focus on delivering results for their constituents — not their stock portfolios.

PROTECT ABORTION RIGHTS

  • Mark is a co-sponsor of the Women’s Health Protection Act which would write almost 50 years of precedent for abortion protections under Roe v. Wade into law. Mark will always defend and protect the right of Arizona women to make their own healthcare decisions.

FIGHT CLIMATE CHANGE

  • From the International Space Station, Mark has seen the impacts of climate change on our planet. He knows we have to use science, data, and facts to fight climate change and its impacts on Arizona, including drought, heat, and wildfires. He passed legislation to boost renewable energy, which will protect the climate and create more great-paying jobs in Arizona.

SUPPORT VETERANS

  • As a Navy combat veteran, Mark has great respect for Arizona’s military and veteran community. In office, Mark helped pass bipartisan legislation to expand VA healthcare eligibility for toxin-exposed veterans.

Both candidates are offering very different bundles of public goods, so it would be wise for voters to look a little deeper into the mechanics of each policy prescription. Once the results are in, a Shapley value should be calculated to determine the magnitude of the winner’s success. Will it be the Thiel-backed conservatarian or center-democratic astronaut?

Contra-Populism: IV

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The third and arguably most compelling reason to refute populism is that it creates division. As observed by Pierre Lemieux:

“..populist regimes crave enemies and scapegoats this feature is sometimes included in the definition of populism. Foreigners are convenient scapegoats, as can be observed in both late-nineteenth-century populism in America and Donald Trump’s recent version..”

“To counter the people’s disenchantment, populist leaders blame internal enemies: experts, elites, domestic minorities, even opposition parties, who are said to work against “the common people..” (P.21).

It is no surprise that populism capitalizes on the social friction between various groups. The emphasis of this divisive rhetoric varies depending upon the strain of populism. Populism mirrors the varieties of socialism; frequently, both are the same. Since populism; assumes the preferences of all average constituents, there is a collectivistic nature of this category of political philosophy. In his master treatise, Human Action (1949),  Ludwig Von Mises describes this phenomenon of collectivism in the concept of polylogism. Polylogism assumes that:

“.. Marxian polylogism asserts that the logical structure of mind is different with {the members of various social classes. Racial polylogism differs from Marxian polylogism only in so far as it ascribes to each race a peculiar logical structure of mind and maintains that all members of a definite race, no matter what their class affiliation may be, are endowed with this peculiar logical structure… (p.75).

Essentially, both right-wing and left-wing variations on collectivistic rhetoric heavily lean on the differences between various subsets of the population. Populist political leaders feed up these differences to sow disconnect and political antagonism. Bernie Sanders capitalizes upon longstanding class envy; Donald Trump weaponized concerns about Mexican immigration to pander to the political demands of everyday voters. These tensions are exacerbated through the “us against them” (p.29) irresponsible framing of public policy by opportunistic politicians. Much of this political bluster from populist candidates has little regard for facts or truth; making it a potentially false narrative to persuade naïve voters that these candidates are working for the good of the people.

The irony is that many pundits complain about political tribalism, but many of the political influences throwing fuel on the fire are prominent movers and shakers in public discourse. Considering both rights and left collectivism gain followers through sowing social discord or on the lines of race or economic status, it should not be a shock when we see more friction between various political factions.

Contra-Populism- Part I

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Each election year, millions of Americans are bombarded with many political advertisements. This communication is designed to persuade voters to vote for or against a ballot referendum or a specific candidate. Frequently, the arguments conveyed on these pithy postcards and commercials are slanted, oversimplified, or even factually incorrect. 2022 like any other election cycle is the Super Bowl for political persuasion, even if campaign managers and political action committees need to restore to sophistry, emotional appeals, and distorted facts to convince the public.

One global trend in politics that political tastemakers in the United States have capitalized upon is populism. Examples include AOC and Bernie Sanders on the left; former president Donald Trump and Josh Hawley on the right. What is populism? There are several interpretations and misconceptions regarding the term, but it can be best defined as a political movement that “..champions..” the interests of ordinary people over the elites. Despite the growth of both left-wing and right-wing populist movements across the globe, many of the policy prescriptions of populist politicians are quixotic and at worst are antagonistic. Such ideologies subvert individual liberty, advocate for economically illiterate policies, and create social discord.

Prisoner’s Dilemmas XXI: (Part B): The Fiasco on the Vineyard

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Part A

As mentioned in Part A, the lack of foresight and economic ignorance of Massachusetts voters are a notable feature of the Fiasco on the Vineyard saga. However, Governor DeSantis is far from innocent in this debacle. He essentially used tax dollars to make an existing problem worse. All in the name of political gamesmanship. Yes, DeSantis is correct that Massachusetts does not fully bare the cost of liberal immigration policies. Many immigrants avoid Massachusetts because the state is financially inhospitable due to the high cost of living. It is tempting to give a political actors a dose of their own medicine when they have virtually no skin in the game.

DeSantis marooned these people in a jurisdiction where they do not have much hope for economic mobility, only stressing the island’s meager resources. Massachusetts voters defected first, by favoring immigration policies that will not impact their communities. The governor of Florida (DeSantis) chose to punch back and flew fifty migrants to an affluent tourist town in the Bay State. Not only was this tactless and passive-aggressive, but it was also lazy. It is easier to make a political spectacle out of the immigration debate than to advocate and implement reforms. The suboptimal result is; a group of impoverished immigrants stranded on a prohibitively expensive island. It is reasonable to argue that this situation is the second layer (and most salient) layer of this Prisoner’s Dilemma Dynamic.

The model for Validating the DeSantis vs. Martha Vineyard PD

Condition 1:  T>R>P>S

  • 1> .5>0>-1

This expression is typical in political Prisoner’s Dilemma centered on a single issue. 1= represents a single victory, .5= a compromise, 0= the lack of direct political blowback for refusing to compromise, and -1 = political defeat. If two political adversaries are competing over multiple policies that are being implemented independently of each other then the Temptation to defect would surpass the value of 1. 

  • Considering the current political animosity between Democrats and Republics; this situation numerically and quantitively fits this condition. 

Condition 2:   (T+S)/2<R

· (1+-1)/2 < .5

· (0)/2 <.5

· 0<.5

Blockchain Voting Systems

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America’s faith in domestic elections is now buckling. Elections are now among the many enduring institutions; that the American people are losing trust in. Whether it was the investigation into meddling in the 2016 Election or the claims of voter fraud costing Donald Trump reelection, Americans have lost faith in elections. Voting, much like other segments of political life, perception carries more weight with the public than reality. An axiom keenly observed by Machiavelli centuries ago; appearance is everything.

63 % of adults polled indicated that they favor abolishing the electoral college. An NPR poll claims that 64 % of participants believed that democracy was in a state of crisis. One survey suggests that many Americans favor reforms to increase ballot access. US voters have concerns regarding the fairness and legitimacy of domestic elections. Both sides of the aisle are worried, but their distress is generally limited to situations of ideological interest. For example, 70 % of Republicans believed that the 2020 election, that ousted Trump out of office; was manipulated. A notable 72% of democrats suspected Russian interference in the 2016 Election was likely.

Could the faith be restored in American elections if we scrapped the current voting methods for one that made the process more transparent and accessible? A potential solution could be implementing a blockchain-based voting system. This would entail that each vote is permanently recorded on a publicly accessible ledger. Each voter “transaction” would then be confirmed by blockchain validators, in effect decentralizing the vote authentication procedure. Providing greater transparency, fewer barriers to the ballot box, and anonymous consensus on the majority vote. It would be possible for there to be a two-tiered blockchain system, one environment for voters and the other for the electoral college. This way, we do not have to restructure the legal framework of voting in our Democratic Republic. But also, this avoids the controversy of “faithless electoral” (the issue was adjudicated in Chiafalo v. Washington), as the electoral representative’s fidelity to the popular vote would be visible and immutable[1].

Some municipalities throughout the United States, such as Chandler, Arizona, have run pilot programs to identify problems before mapping this system to a local election. Taking precautions such as a trial run is a wise approach. It is imperative to conduct such experiments before implementation because such a cutting-edge voting system is largely untested. However, it is also advantageous to consider the hypothetical benefits and cost of blockchain voting; to be valid if even it is worthy of drafting a formal proposal to local policymakers [2].

Benefits of Blockchain Voting

  • Prevents tampering with votes; “…blockchains generate cryptographically secure voting records. Votes are recorded accurately, permanently, securely, and transparently. So, no one can modify or manipulate votes..” (p.3).
  • Blockchain voting would increase voter participation by eliminating some barriers and coordination costs associated with in-person voting and mail-in ballots (p.4).
  • This system could make the vote counting process more efficient (p.4); “… with an automatic tally that can be publicly disclosed after the fact, election officials will be able to simply add the digital votes to the votes cast otherwise…” (p.430).
  • Greater transparency because “… recording votes onto a blockchain allows for an easily accessible method for a voter to audit their respective vote..” (p.430).

Drawbacks of Blockchain Voting

  • There is potential for the blockchain validators to succumb to external interests (bribery, threats of violence, etc.) and collude to alter the election results. 
  • As with blockchain environments for cryptocurrency transactions, this system would only provide pseudo-anonymity. Ultimately, the validator would be the “key holder” and possess the ability to decrypt the voter’s identity. Utilizing a voting protocol that would have a two-step (having the voter “re-vote”) process may add a layer to ensure privacy, making the process more complex
  • Blockchains are still susceptible to the cybersecurity threat of attacks from hackers. “…If a user loses their private key, they can no longer vote, and if an attacker obtains a user’s private key they can now undetectably vote as that user… happened to cryptocurrency exchanges, which have lost hundreds of millions of dollars worth of cryptocurrency to attackers or through bad key management..” (p.14).
  • Decentralized ledgers are managed by multiple validators which can make “.. coordination difficult..” (p.15).

Conclusion:

It is impossible to develop a voting system with zero margins for error. Regardless of the format, the potential for mistakes and devious machinations will always lurk in the background. Most individuals in the political establishment and the academy are not receptive to blockchain voting. Below is a conclusion from a widely cited MIT paper on the topic:

“…A summary of this article’s takeaways follows. 1. Blockchain technology does not solve the fundamental security problems suffered by all electronic voting systems §3. Moreover, blockchains may introduce new problems that non-blockchain-based voting systems would not suffer from. 2. Electronic, online, and blockchain-based voting systems are more vulnerable to serious failures than available paper-ballot-based alternatives (§2). Moreover, given the state of the art in computer security, they will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. 3. Adding new technologies to systems may create new potential for attacks. Caution is appropriate in security-critical applications, especially where political pressures may favor an expedited approach. (§3.4). The article has also provided a collection of critical questions intended as a reference point for evaluating any new voting system proposal from a security perspective (§4) and provided references for further reading on this topic (§5). Blockchain-based voting methods fail to live up to their apparent promise. While they may appear to offer better security for voting, they do not help to solve the major security problems with online voting, and might well make security worse…”.

(p.19)

Although the conclusion in the above white paper may be reasonable objections, this does not mean that developers could not attempt to correct these shortcomings. For the ivory tower intellectuals, it is easy to dismiss this concept on technical grounds alone, but virtually no one is supplying any solutions. Even though numerically, a person’s vote has no chance of influencing the outcomes of an election, voting still operates as a form of political expression. Since there is a great deal of disillusionment with the current political system, it is critical to find a way to provide greater transparency in elections. Political strife and division have already taken their toll on American society for the past decade; no need to continue down this dark and fruitless path.

Footnotes:

  1. This observation is not commentary nor a critique on the institution of the Electoral College. The only aim of this statement is to address the popularly held misgivings about electoral voting systems.
  1. The detailed lists of the positive attributes and negative qualities of blockchain voting are not exhaustive.

The Pragmatic Solution to Gender Pronouns

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The convergence of gender and politics has been an enduring fixture in public discourse, pre-dating (the women’s suffrage movement). the modern feminist movement. The politics of gender are more opaque than merely debating the gender wage gap. Since the mainstream acceptance of transgender people, the bifurcated distinction between males and females has become murky. This makes social issues related to gender much more complex. In this gust of normative creative destruction, it is possible that feminism in itself is an anachronism that clings onto an outmoded perception of gender.

One issue that has made gender politics more bewildering has been the focus on using the proper gender pronouns. Many American corporations recognize non-binary gender pronouns and encourage their employees to indicate their preferred pronouns in their email signatures. Not everyone has the time (the list is long), interest, or congenial worldview of non-binary people to learn or use the correct pronoun. However, are our social interactions (such as work) doomed to become a prisoner’s dilemma between transgender people and Conservatives? Will the grammar aficionados forever wince at referring to a single person with plural pronouns (they/them)? There is a positive-sum compromise between non-binary individuals and those predisposed to accept the binary model of gender identity; that is, use proper nouns only.

No need to remember a litany of confusing pronouns, use their first name. For example, Jim. Even if Jim looks like a sultry female model in a bikini, still refer to this individual by “Jim”. It doesn’t matter if their name was Tiffany last week, just proceed by calling them “Jim”. This individual cannot take issue with you addressing them by their preferred first name. It enables Canadian residents to circumvent the hideous assault on free speech that is Bill C-16; by not forcing people to use gender pronouns they disagree with for political or social reasons, but concurrently adhering to Canadian law. This suggestion should be considered a pragmatic compromise, not a commentary on non-binary gender identification.

Prisoner’s Dilemmas- XX: City Council Cartels

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Anyone who has observed the chaos of local politics has seen the Machiavellian dynamics of a municipal committee elected by the town. The best example is seated on the town council. The incentive structure of the council members; is driven by the fact that their position is secured or eliminated by the will of the people. Setting up the classical variables for any Public Choice analysis, as the council members tailor their platforms and rhetoric to the voter preferences. If the same council members are either reelected or run unopposed, there is the incentive to form a coalition with the other recurring council men, formulating an informal agreement to have each other’s back. Effectively creating a cartelization since the other sitting council members have consented to support your policy prescriptions and justify your controversies. Per Katz and Mair (2018):

“…The mainstream parties, and most minor parties as well, have effectively formed a cartel, through which they protect their interests in ways that sap the capacity of their erstwhile principal—the electorate—actually to control the parties that are supposed to be the agents of the electorate. While the appearance of competition is preserved, in terms of political substance it has become spectacle (p.7)…”

By forming tight bonds and backing the rest of the elected officials on the council, each works to consolidate the power within this single unit of governance. Forming an impermeable oligarchy that the voters cannot vote out office due to a lack of policy competition. Analogous to an economic cartel, where consenting producers all fix prices in unison, all politicians “fix policy” to conform to the rest of the representatives on the council. This keeps external influences out of the fold, enabling all to retain their seats if they play ball. Much like all participants in an economic cartel enjoy larger profit margins, if no one reneges.

Hypothetically, let’s say there are four council members; one of the incumbents decides to resign mid-term. The replacement candidate is an insurgent candidate, breaking the unanimity among the colluding council members. This loosens the relational foundation among the incumbents; we start to see instances of defection among them. What was once complete accord among the old boys club quickly devolves into a prisoner’s dilemma. It is important to remember that cartels seldom are sustainable indefinitely. Eventually, the temptation of one party to undercut the rest of the colluding companies will cause them to defect (Tullock, 1985, p. 1076). For example, one particularly narcissistic council member may claim responsibility for policy reforms that his other cohorts co-sponsored. This type of behavior only undercuts the contributions of the others, leading them to undermine this arrogant council member. The cadre of incumbents suffer from the eroded trust. The newer member with innovative policy prescriptions; only proceeds to dimmish the creditability of the old boys club.

Bodily Integrity Arguments and Misapplications

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People have the unfortunate tendency of favoring reasoning that is favorable to their preferences. Once an individual encounters the same logic applied to a position they disagree with, the application is assumed to be invalid. The abortion debate is no different in this respect. Pro-Choice advocates basing their stance on the logic of bodily integrity must be willing to extrapolate this same principle to other situations. Anything else would merely be convenient cherry-picking.

For example, advocating for choice regarding bodily integrity also applies to several other controversial topics. Such subject areas include drug use, the right to commit suicide, and objections to vaccine mandates, to name a few. Despite any Pro-Choice advocate’s misgivings about permitting the listed rights above to be consistent, they must begrudgingly accept that these are rights that cannot be prohibited by law. Any counterargument or suggestion to criminalize the above positions is a deviation from the logic of bodily integrity. Permitting an activity does not mean you believe it is moral. Moreover, this argument is predicated on an externalities argument; in a rash attempt to weigh the societal costs.

However, many Pro-Choice proponents may then surmise that individuals defending the decision to use drugs, commit suicide, and decline immunizations must accept abortion as a permissible procedure. Reverse application is not quite so linear and has several complications. Indeed, abortion presents a predicament for exponents of a Lockean conception of self-ownership. In one sense, abortion violates the Lockean notion of self-ownership. As Locke asserts that we cannot “… nobody can transfer to another more power than he has in himself, and nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other… or take away the life or property of another..”(p.43)[1].

If we define the fetus as a living being, there is a conflict between the mother and the unborn child. Drug abuse, refusing immunization, and suicide confines direct bodily harm to the individual making the decision, thereby comporting with the tenants of the Non-Aggression Principle. Although, even in a legal sense, living children do not have rights[2] as they are under the guardianship of their parents. Also, if we truly own ourselves, can’t we choose which procedures we can have performed on our bodies? There is no easy solution to this complex and taxing quandary. 

Foot Notes:

1.) I omitted the portion of the quote regarding self-destruction. This portion of the doctrine is wholly illegitimate. If we own bodies, we have a right to dispose of ourselves; if God exists, he transferred our spirit to our corporal bodies. Through this transfer, God relinquishes ownership of our essence extending to us full possession of our bodies. Meaning we can maintain our physical bodies how we see fit, including but not limited to drug use and suicide.

2.) See Rothbard pages 97-113.

Focal Points- II: Roe V. Wade (1973)

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The seminal Supreme Court case Roe V. Wade (1973) is a textbook example of a game-theoretical focal point. Why? Roe like many other Supreme Court rulings operates as an unspoken point of convergence in public policy. Ideally, such decisions made by the high courts should clarify the existing laws. In theory, the application of the law is the attempt to apply static statutes to dynamic circumstances. Generating ample opportunities for ambiguity and other categories of confusion regarding the administration of law. These cases generally serve as centering fixtures of public policy debates. After all, there are typically steep penalties for violating the law. If a law is flawed or otherwise unjust it can be amended or repealed, providing use revisions have gone through the proper channels. Making such court decisions a common destination of all pundits regardless of their stance on abortion. Endowing this infamous court decision with all of the unique characteristics of a focal point. No formal coordination or communication is required to reference this court case in the abortion debate, for decades it has been the centerpiece of all the contemptuous verbal sparring matches.

In many regards, Roe is unique even from the standpoint of being a Schellingian focal point. Even individuals lacking the proper understanding and context of the legal and normative arguments if the debate knows the case. Maybe not a bit of the factual or legal details of the case, but they know it by name. It is long been know as being synonymous with the legal justification for abortion. Many pro-choice and pro-life advocates use this case as a springboard to crafting normative positions either defending or repudiating the legality of this controversial procedure. Oddly enough, most of these talking points craft from a superficial understanding of the case has little to no legal substance, it degenerates into an ethical debate. Ethical justifications are also important but signify a conflation between normative and positive arguments. This an all too common occurrence in just about any political debate, the confusion between hard facts and ethics. Despite the common misconceptions regarding the abortion debate, without any formal coordination, even the arm-chair pundit looks towards Roe for the basis of their arguments.

Even people who are not interested in nor have an invested interest in the abortion debate, colloquially know Roe as the “abortion case”. Demonstrating how culturally in the United States this one Supreme Court decision from the 1970s has taken on a life of its own. Whether its legal significance is overblown is almost immaterial, but a matter to be debated among proper jurists. The significance or the salience of the focal point is culturally constructed. This isn’t to say that the moral arguments surrounding the debate are subjective. Rather, points of reference are most certainly subjective, but what makes them centralized or significant is a consensus of its importance. There is certainly a democratization effect that takes place in the establishment of culturally relevant focal points. The actual importance of the case is not nearly important as its perceived significance. A lot of Roe cultural clout was most likely sustained due to the decision being sandwiched between the cultural liberalization of the 1960s and the nascent period of feminism. It’s difficult to surmise if this ruling was made at a different point in time that it would possess the same degree of gravity. The cultural tides of the 1960s and 1970s provide the fertile substrate for such a contentious issue to be in the Supreme Court docket. These temporal and cultural aspects of the 1970s made Roe the ideal cause to be a focal point. In the decades since it has remained a consistent point of reference that also doubles as a divisive cultural event. Mirroring the same contentions of the Vietnam war and the Civil Rights movement.

Bootleggers & Baptists: Volume 1

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Below are the first ten blog entries of the Bootleggers and Baptists series on the Inverted Logic Blog. Going forward collective volumes of the series will be published for every ten blog posts, composing a volume. These volumes include supplemental essays and  addendums written within the timeframe of the corresponding blog posts.

Essays 1-10:

Bootleggers & Baptists- Part I- Gun Control Act of 1968

Bootleggers and Baptists Part II- Netflix is One of the Winners of COVID-19

Bootleggers and Baptists- Part III: Holy Rollers and The Beer Industry Take On Pot Legalization in The Bay State

Bootleggers & Baptists IV: Good Cop, Bad Cop. Qualified Immunity

Bootleggers and Baptists Part V: Occupational Licensing- Arizona Edition

Bootleggers & Baptists Part VI: Unlikely Foes of Universal Medicine

Bootleggers and Baptists VII: Jones Act

Bootleggers & Baptists VIII: Can The Bootlegger and The Baptist Be The Same Person: A Drive-Thru Revelation

Bootleggers and Baptists IX: Ballot Access Laws- An Example of A Dual Role Actor

Bootleggers and Baptists X: Marijuana and Taxes

Supplemental Content:

Dual-Role Actor- A Fresh Look At Bootlegger and Baptists Dynamics- Pending Acceptance by The Journal of Brief Ideas

Dual Role Actor Thesis Published by The Journal of Brief Ideas

Letter to Bruce Yandle: Dual Role Actor Dynamic: Bootleggers and Baptists

Letter to Bruce Yandle- Dual-Role Actor Dynamic

Bruce Yandle’s Reply

My Response to Bruce Yandle